Lateral stress effects on liquefaction resistance correlations


  • Kenji Harada Fudo Tetra Corporation, Tokyo, Japan
  • Rolando P. Orense University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
  • Kenji Ishihara Chuo University, Ube, Japan
  • Jun Mukai Fudo Tetra Corporation, Tokyo, Japan



When the sand compaction pile (SCP) method is implemented to improve loose deposits of sandy soils, its effect is evaluated generally in terms of increase in density, which is beneficial for reducing the liquefaction potential of the deposits during earthquakes. An additional advantage can be expected to occur due to concurrent increase in lateral stress. When the resistance to liquefaction is evaluated on the basis of SPT N-value or CPT qc-value, the increased resistance to penetration due to the sand compaction has been interpreted conventionally as being associated mainly with the increase in density. Therefore, in order to properly evaluate the effectiveness of ground improvement in compacted soils, it is necessary to quantify the effect of lateral stresses on the penetration resistance and liquefaction strength. In this paper, based on the results of SPT and CPT performed in a chamber box in the laboratory, the relationships between penetration resistance, liquefaction resistance and relative density were re-examined and the influence of lateral stress, expressed in terms of KC, was investigated. Although the results indicated that generally the resistance to liquefaction increases with increasing KC–value, little difference was noted when the density of the deposit was high. Based on the results, recommended charts incorporating the effect of KC were proposed.


Architectural Institute of Japan, AIJ, (2001). Recommendations for Design of Building Foundations, p.65 (in Japanese).

Boulanger, R. W., (2003). “High overburden stress effects in liquefaction analysis,” J. Geot Eng, ASCE, 129 (12), 1071–1082.

Cubrinovski, M. and Ishihara, K. (1999). “Empirical correlation between SPT N–value and relative density for sandy soils,” Soils and Foundations, 39 (5), 61–71. DOI:

Fujita, K., (1968). “Standard penetration test,” Interpretation of Soil Investigation Test Results and Example Application, JSSMFE, 29–76 (in Japanese).

Gibbs, H.J. and Holtz, W.G., (1957). "Re-search on determining the density of sand by spoon penetration test," Proc. 4th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Vol. 1, 35–39.

Harada, K., Yasuda, S., Yamamoto, M., Arai, D. and Uda, M., (2000). “Influence of earth pressure coefficient on SPT–N value and liquefaction resistance of the ground improved by compaction methods,” Proc., GeoEng2000.

Huang, A.B. and Hsu, H.H., (2005). “Cone penetration tests under simulated field conditions,” Geotechnique, 55 (5), 345–354. DOI:

Ishihara, K. and Takatsu, H., (1979). “Effects of overconsolidation and KO conditions on the liquefaction characteristics of sands,” Soils & Foundations, 19 (4), 59–68. DOI:

Ishihara, K., (1996). Soil Behaviour in Earthquake Geotechnics, Oxford Press, 209–218.

Jamiolkowski, M., Ghionna, V.N., Lancellotta, R. and Paqualisis, E., (1988). “New correlations of penetration tests for design practice,” Proc. Int Symp on Penetration Testing, ISOPT–1, Orlando, Balkema, 263–296.

Japan Road Association, JRA (1996). “Part V, Seismic Design,” Specifications for Highway Bridges (in Japanese).

Meyerhof, G.G., (1957). “Discussion on research on determining the density of sands by penetration testing,” Proc., 4th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, London, U.K., Vol. III, 110.

Robertson, P.K. and Wride, C.E., (1998). “Evaluating cyclic liquefaction potential using the cone penetration test,” Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 35(3), 442–459. DOI:

Salgado, R., Boulanger R.W. and Mitchell, J.K., (1997). “Lateral stress effects on CPT liquefaction resistance correlations,” Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE, 123 (8), 726–735. DOI:

Suzuki, Y. and Tokimatsu, K., (2003). “Correlations between CPT data and liquefaction resistance of in–situ frozen samples,” J. Struct Constr Eng, AIJ, 566, 81–88 (in Japanese).

Yasuda, S., Nishikawa, O., Kobayashi, T., Asaka, H. and Naito, F., (1996). “Model tests on the relation between relative density and SPT N–value,” Proc., 51st Annual Conference of JSCE, 290–291 (in Japanese).

Yoshida, T. and Kokusho, T., (1988). “Proposal on the method of application of penetration test on sandy ground,” CRIEPI Report (in Japanese).

Youd, T.L., Idriss, I.M., Andrus, R.D., Arango, I., Castro, G., Christian, J.T., Dobry, R., Liam Finn, W.D.L., Harder, L.F. Jr., Hynes, M.E., Ishihara, K., Koester, J.P., Liao, S.S.C., Marcuson, W.F. III, Martin, G.R., Mitchell, J.K., Moriwaki, Y., Power, M.S., Robertson, P.K., Seed, R.B., Stokoe, K.H. II, (2001). “Liquefaction Resistance of Soils: Summary Report from the 1996 NCEER and 1998 NCEER/NSF Workshops on Evaluation of Liquefaction Resistance of Soils,” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE. 127 (10), p 817–833.




How to Cite

Harada, K., Orense, R. P., Ishihara, K., & Mukai, J. (2010). Lateral stress effects on liquefaction resistance correlations. Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, 43(1), 13–23.